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苏发祥:英国藏学研究概述(下)
来源:清史所 作者:清史所 点击数:17981 更新时间:2009-5-1

 

四、当前英国的藏学研究

人类迈入21世纪后,随着中国改革开放政策的不断实施和国际社会对西藏历史与现状的深入了解,同时也随着中国综合实力的不断增长和在国际社会上的影响日益扩大,世界各国的藏学研究也在悄然发生粉变化,除了那些以学术为幌子,死心塌地为所谓“西藏独立”摇唇鼓舌者外,越来越多的西方藏学家开始重视中国本土的藏学研究成果,作为国际显学的藏学,其学术的含量越来越高。英国作为传统的藏学研究强国,其形势亦是如此。从藏学研究的分布格局看,牛津大学和伦敦大学依然是英国藏学研究的排头兵,但近年来,剑桥大学的藏学研究也在不断加强,大有三足鼎立之势。

目前.牛津大学的藏学研究主要集中在东方研究所,招收两年制的“西藏及喜马拉雅研究”硕士研究生,主要是从学习藏语(拉萨话)入手,为以后攻读不同专业藏学研究的博士学位奠定基础(详细情况参见本文附录“牛津大学西藏及喜马拉雅研究硕士研究生培养方案”),代表人物有:

1.查尔斯·兰伯(Charles Ramble):生于印度的加尔各答,获牛津大学博士学位,现为牛津大学讲师,牛津大学苯教研究工程负责人,国际藏学联合会主席。兰伯博士精通藏语,长期从事苯教及藏区人类学研究,代表作有:《女魔之脐:高地尼泊尔的藏传佛教和民间宗教》《西藏之圣地和朝圣:寻找失去的苯教王国》《鲁扎的喇嘛:尼泊尔西部的藏族苯教家庭牧师》【42】等。此外,兰伯博士和马汀·布劳恩主编的《西藏和喜马拉雅的人类学》【43】一书也得到学术界的一致好评。

2.乌瑞克·洛斯勒(Ulrike Roesler) : 1995年毕业于德国明斯特大学(the University ofMuenster),获印度研究博士学位。1994-2004年,在德国玛尔堡大学(Marburg University)教授梵文、藏文和印度宗教。2005-2006年,牛津大学佛教研究努马塔讲师(Numata Lecturer in BuddhistStudies )。现为牛津大学东方研究院的研究人员。近年来,洛斯勒博士致力于印度吠陀文献和藏传佛教噶当派经典的研究,代表作有(彭域的噶当巴道场:中部藏区早期佛教寺院指南)等。【44

自海门道夫和斯奈格罗夫相继退休后,伦敦大学亚非学院的藏学研究重点也己经发生了变化。藏族历史研究悄然兴起,而苯教研究逐渐被藏传佛教研究所取代。近年来,在国际藏学界非常活跃的阿里克斯·马凯(Alex Mckay)45】和夏嘉次仁((tshering shakya )46】就是伦敦大学亚非学院培养的青年学者,他们在藏族近代、现代史领域内所做的成就,引起了藏学界越来越多的关注。

目前,亚非学院有关西藏宗教的研究主要集中在宗教系,代表人物有:塞佛提·鲁埃格(SeyfortRuegg )、塔德乌孜·斯考鲁普斯荃(Tadeusz Skorupski)和乌瑞奇·帕格尔(Ulrich Page)等。其中奋埃格教授主要研究大乘佛教哲学思想,是国际学术界公认的如来藏研究专家,代表作有《印度和西藏大乘佛教思想研究》《布顿生平研究》【47】等。斯考鲁普斯基侧重于小乘佛教文献研究,著有《六圆满》《藏族护身符》【48】等。乌瑞奇·帕格尔博士毕业于德国波恩大学,曾担任宗教系系主任,其研究领域主要是印度和西藏佛教史、显宗典籍等,代表作有《绘制次第:大乘经典中的金刚句》《伦敦藏协嘎尔手抄本甘珠尔缩徽版文献目录指南》和《菩萨藏:教义、实践及其在大乘文献中的地位》【49】等等。

此外,目前的英国还有一个类似“西藏及喜马拉雅研究会”(Circle of Tibetan and HimalayanStudies,简称CTHS )的学术组织。该学术组织的活动中心就是伦敦大学亚非学院,荣誉会长是塞佛提·餐埃格教授,会长是乌瑞奇·帕格尔博士,主要成员来自牛津大学、剑桥大学和伦敦大学,几乎包括了目前所有英国高校的藏学家。该协会的主要活动之一是邀请欧洲各国藏学家举办定期学术讲座。学术讲座一般安排在每年的第一学期,2006-2007学年讲座的学者及题目如下:

序号

演讲人

所属大学

演讲时间

演讲题目

1

Dr. Karma Phuntsho

University of Cambridge

23 November 2006

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Tibetan Buddhist Schools:Mipham's discourse of  humour and satire

2

Dr. Charles Ramble

Oxford University

26

January2007 

The Sutra of the Prince's Law-Giving:a Bonpo treatise on statecraft and its social implications

3

Dr. Henk Bleze

Leiden University

16 March 2007

Where are the Bonpos from:Locating the Ancient Heartland of Bon

4

Dr. Franz-Karl Ehrhard

Munich University

11 May 2007

Himalayan Manuscript and Blockprint Traditions

总之,就目前而言,亚非学院的藏学研究其重点已转移到了对藏族历史和藏传佛教的研究,而藏区人类学研究的阵地已逐渐转移到了牛津大学和剑桥大学,至于其传统强项苯教研究似乎后继乏人。

近年来,英国藏学研究的一个新动向就是剑桥大学藏学研究的逐渐兴起。虽然剑桥大学很早就己开设有梵文、藏文等与西藏研究相关的课程,而且剑桥也不乏喜马拉雅研究的著名学者,如目前社会人类学系的麦克法兰尼(Alan Macfarlane)教授,就是国际著名的尼泊尔研究专家,但直到1986年,蒙古语与内亚研究所(Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unite,简称MIASU)成立后,由于蒙古族与藏族在历史、宗教、文化等方面的密切联系,剑桥的藏学研究才开始起步。

MIASU隶属于剑桥大学社会人类学系(Department of Social Anthropology),其宗旨是对内亚大陆的文化和族群进行比较研究。目前,该所开设有藏语文课,并与我国西藏社会科学院、内蒙古大学等建立了合作关系,藏学研究的代表人物是海德噶·迪姆伯格(Hildegard Dienmberger).

迪姆伯格毕业于娜威奥斯陆大学,获人类学博士学位,主要研究领域包括我国西藏定日地区及尼泊尔的人类学、民族志研究。1996年,她与我国著名藏学家、西藏社会科学院的巴桑旺堆先生合作,整理、出版了《协嘎尔教法史》【50】,填补了长期以来对元代十三万户之一拉堆洛研究的空白。此外,她还与巴桑旺堆先生合作著有《惊奇盛宴:博顿却列南杰的生平及其传承》【51】《瓦协》等。

MIASU有关藏学研究的项目都由迪姆伯格负责或牵头,目前,该所相关项目有:

1.藏文及蒙文珍稀版本文献和手抄本项目(Tibetan-Mongolian Rare Books and ManuscriptsProject).

2.西藏与喜马拉雅山趁的传统与现代性(Tradition and Modernity in Tibet and the Himlayas).

3.中国西藏一内蒙地方的时间体系与政治谈判(Time systems and political negotiation inMongol-Tibetan enclaves in China)

4.后社会主义场景下西藏一蒙古之相汇点:当代中国民族主义的比较研究(The Tibet-Mongoliainterface in the Context of Late Socialism:a comparative study of nationalities in ContemporaryChina).

5一位藏族女喇嘛与她的转世:桑顶多吉帕姆(15-21世纪)研究(A Tibetan Woman-Lama and her Reincarnations:a Study of the Samding Dorje Phagmo(15th-21st Century).

五、结语

通过以上对英国藏学研究历程的简要回顾,我们可以看出,从1774年第一位抵达西藏的英国人到目前,英国藏学研究有以下8个基本特点:

1.英国藏学研究肇始于英国对我国西藏地方的侵略,而19世纪中叶以前从事与西藏研究有关的人员都是英印政府的官员。

2.无论是早期的学术官员,还是后来的学院派学者,皆重视藏语文的学习,从语言入手从事藏学研究是英国藏学研究的主要传统,这点与西方其他国家的藏学研究传统基本一致。

3.20世纪初开始,英国的藏学研究逐渐形成了两个传统:即以牛津大学为中心的藏族历史和政治研究传统;以伦教大学亚非学院为中心的藏族苯教和藏区人类学研究传统。

4.进入新世纪以来,英国藏学研究的格局发生了徽妙的变化,牛津大学成为苯教和藏区人类学研究的中心,而伦教大学的重点转移到了藏族近现代史和藏传佛教经典研究。

5.近年来剑桥大学藏学研究的异军突起表明:不远的将来,藏区人类学和社会学研究有可能会成为英国藏学研究的重心。

6.从学缘构成分析,目前,英国藏学家大都来自英国本土以外的欧洲国家,他们都有熟练的藏语文基础,并开始学习和掌握汉语文。

7.因地缘和文化关系,英国藏学家与欧洲大陆的藏学研究者联系非常频繁,他们之间经常互通有无、资源共享。

8.从目前状况看,藏族学者或非西方学者欲进入英国藏学研究的主流,尚有很长一段距离。

最后,英国藏学研究给我们的另外一个启发就是:由于藏学是一个由众多学科群构成的新兴学科,因此,在藏学研究中,如何明确研究方向的依托学科,培育单位或个体长期、稳定的研究重点和突破方向,乃是目前我国藏学界需要及时重视和严肃探讨的问题。

 

注释:

[1]匈牙利人乔玛(Alexander Csoma de K&ros,1784-1842)被公认为是现代国际藏学研究的创始人,参见冯燕:《国外藏学研究概况》IM),北京:中国社会科学出版社,1979.287页。

[2].见苏发祥、供邱泽仁:《当代美国旅学研究的主要内容、特点及其分析》[J]。中国人民大学复印报刊资料《民族问题研究》,2007年第5期。

[3]苏发祥:《伸向雪城的魔爪—从波格尔使藏到英国第一次侵藏战争》[M],北京:中国藏学出版社,2002年,第4页。

[4]信函的具体内容见《伸向雪城的魔爪—从波格尔使藏到英国第一次侵藏战争》第13-14页。

[5].阅柳隆棋、邓锐龄:《乔治·波格尔入藏的使命内容及其执行结果》载《藏族学术讨论会论文集》.拉萨:西藏人民出版社,1984年。第205-220页。

[6]据说六世班禅将自己的妹妹许配给了年轻的波格尔,但许多学者对此持怀疑态度。黎吉生作过专门的调查研究,认为波格尔确实与六世班禅的妹妹结了婚,他们的后人今天仍然生活在英国.详细史事有待进一步考证.Hugh Richardson:George Bogle and HisChildren, in ffigh Peaks, Pure Earth一一Collected wrings on Tibetan History and Culturepp. 468-481. Serindia rublica-tions,London,1998.

[7]虽然波格尔是进入西藏的第一位英国人,但他的旅藏纪录1876年才出版.是英国人关于西藏研究的第二本著作,见Clements R.Markharn:Narrativess of the George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa, London.1876.汉译名为《叩响雪域高原的门靡:乔治·波格尔西藏见闻及托马斯·里宁拉萨之行纪实),张皓、姚乐野译,四川民族出版社.2002年。

8Hugh Richardson: High Peaks. Pure Earth- Collected Wrings on Tibetan History and Culture .plate101 GeorgeBogle's Tomb, Serindia Publications, London,1998

9】牙含章:《班禅翻尔德尼传》拉萨:西藏人民出版社,1980年。

10Luciano Petech: The Missions of Bogle and Turner According to the Tibetan Texts, in Selected Papers on the Asian History. pp. 60-61, Roma.1988.

11】《伸向雪域的魔爪—从波格尔使藏到英国第一次侵藏战争》第43页。

12Samuel Turner: An account of an embassy to the court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet containing a narrative of ajourney. London,1806.汉译名为《西蒙札什伦布寺访问记》,苏发祥,沈桂萍译.西藏人民出版社,2004

13】曼宁进藏日记和详细过程参阅Clements R. Marrham: Narrativess of the George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey ofThomas manning to

Lhasa,London,187e.

14】我的朋友英国成学家Dan Jantzen博士为我握供了莫尔科若夫提的相关线索和英文材料,在此表示感谢。

15】【法】古伯察著,耿异译:《鞑靼西藏旅行记》,北京:中国藏学出版社,2006年,第489-491页。

16】大多数人相信,18269月,莫尔科若夫提死于从拉达克到克什米尔的途中。见Beyond Bokhara-The isle of William Moorcroft-Asian Explorer and Pioneer Veterinary Surgeon 1767-1825,byGarryAlder,Century Publishing ,1985,London ,p.417,

17】荣麟鹏生平见Patrick French: Younghusband:The Last Imperial Adventurer, London:HarperCollius,1994.

18】英文全名为:India and Tibet; a history of the relations which have subsisted between the two countriesom the time of Warren Hastings to 1910with a particular account of the mission to Lhasa of 190l,Delhi,Oriental Publishers,1971.汉译本名为《英国侵略西藏史》,孙煦初译,台北:台湾学生书局,1981.

19Wonders of the Himalayas,Chandigarh:Abhishek Publications, 1977. The Epic of mount Everest.London, E. Arnold&Co. 1947.Geographical results of the Tibet mission.washington,1907

20】内容基本未变,但书名改为:Tibetan Buddhism with Its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology,Dover Publication Inc.New York.1972.

21Sseing Lhasa:British Depictions of the Tibetan Capital 1936-1947.p141, edited by Clare Harris and Tsering Shakya,Serindia Publication, 2003

22】关于贝尔插手我国西藏事务的主要活动,请参阅杜永彬:《近代英国插手中国西藏事务的三名代表人物—荣赫鹏、贝尔、黎吉生》《西藏民族学院学报)1988年第1期。

23Tibet:past&present ,by air Charles Bell. London: Oxford university Press, Humphrey Milford, 1927.汉文译本有二:《西藏史》.宫廷章译,上海:商务印书馆.1931;《西藏志》,董之学、傅勤家译.长沙:商务印书馆.1931

24English-Tibetan colloquial dictionary. Calcutta, The Bengal secretariat book depot. 1920. The People of Tibet.Oxford,the Clarendon Press, 1928. The religion of Tibet·Oxford, Clarendon, 1968. Portrait of a Dalai Lama:the life and times ofthe great thirteenth.London:Wisdom,1987汉译本名为《三世达赖喇嘛传》

25Seeing Lhasa:British Depictions of the Tibetan Capita! 1936-1917,p143,edited by Clare Harris and I sering ahakya,Serindia Publication, 2003.

26】牙含章:《达赖喇嘛传》,北京:人民出版社,1984年,第330页。

27】阅伍昆明主.:《西藏近三百年政治史》[M],鹭江出版社.2006.515-523, 548-599页。

28Alex Mchay: Tibet and the British Raj:Front Cadre 1904- 1947, P. 222, Curzon, Richmond, 1997.

29Tibet:Past and Present .University of Saskatchchewan, 1967. A Short History of Tibet.New York, Dutton, 1962.Ching Dynasty Inscriptions at Lhasa .Roma: Istituto italiano per i1 Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1974. A Cultural History ofTibetDavid Snellgrove and Hugh Richardson. Boston: London: Shabhala: 1986. Ceremonies of the Lhasa Year.edited byMichael Aaris. London:Serindia,1993. High Peaks, Pure Earth:Collected Writings on Tibetan History and Culture.editedwith an introduction by Michael Arts. London: Serindia Publications, 1998.

30Tibetan word bookby Sir Basil Gould, and Hugh Edward Richardson, with a forward by Str Aurel Stein. London, NewYork, Bombay, etc.:H. Milford, Oxford university press, 1943. Tibetan verb roots, by Basil Gould, Hugh Edward Richardson.Kalimpong, India: Tharchin at the Tibet Mirror Press, 1949. Discoveryrecognitionand enthronement of the 14th DalaiLama:a collection of accounts, by Khemey wnam wangdu, air Basil J. Could, Hugh E. Richardson. Dharamsala: Library ofTibetan Works&Archives, 2000.

31[英】F. W.托玛斯编著,刘忠、杨铭译注:《敦煌西域古蒙文社会历史文献》,北京:民族出版社,2003.1页。

32】同上。,

33E. C3ene. Smith: Among Tibetan Texts:History&Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. P. 1, Wisdom Publication,Boston, 2001.

 34Indo-Tibetan Studies:rape" in honor and appreciation of Professor David .L.Snellgrove's Contribution to Indo-Tibetan Studies.P.20,edited byTadeuszSkorupski,Tring,U.K,1990.

35Buddhist HimQ-laya:travels and studies in quest of the origins and nature of Tibetan religion·New It ork:Philo-sophieel Library, 1957. The Nine Ways of Bon. excerpts from gZi-brjid edited and translated . Prajna Press, 1980,0967. 1 heHevajra tantra:a critical study.London, New York: Oxford University Press, 3971. PourLamas of Dolpo:Tibetanbiographies. edited & translated by David L.Snellgrove.Oxford:Cassirer,1967. Himalayan pilgrimage:a study of Tlbetan re-ligion by a traveller through western Nepal .Boston: Shambhala, 1989, c1981.A Cultural History of Tibet.With HughRichardson.Boston : Shambhala.1995.

36The Naked Nagas, Head- hunters of Assam in Peace and War. Calcutta, Thacker, 1946. The Sherpas of Nepal:Buddhism Highlanders. New Delhi: Sterling, 1979. The Sherpas Transformed: Social Change in a Buddhist Society of Nepal·New Delhi: Sterling, 1979. Himalayan Traders:Life in Highland Nepal.London, John Murray, 1975. Life Among IndianTribes, the Autobiography of an Anthropologist. New York:Oxford University Press. 1990.

37】代表作有Tibetan Frontier Families: Reflections of Three Generations from Ding-ri.Carolina Academic Press, U.S.A,1978.中文译名为《藏边人家》,翟胜德译,西旅人民出版社,2001年。

38The Dynamics of Polyandry:KinshipDomesticityand Population on the Tibetan Border .university of ChicagoPress. 1988.

 39】代表作:Early arno-Tibetan Art. Warminster, 1975.汉译名《早期汉蒙艺术》,熊文彬译,河北教育出版社,2001, Lemendiant de I'Amdo pa(安多的托钵僧)),Paris, 1986.

 40A Study on the Historical Foundations of Bhutanwith a Critical Edition and Translation of Certain Bhutanese Texts in Tibetan . Boston Spa, United Kindom :British Library Document Supply Centre, 1978.

41Bhutanthe Early History of a Himalayan Kingdom. Warminster,England:Aris&Phillips. 1979. Autobiographies ofThree Spiritual Masters of Kutang:Lives of Padma-don-grubPadma-dbav-vdus, and Padma-lhun-grub(O- rgyan- bstan-vdzin )Raying- ma- pa religious figures from Nubri and Kutang in Nepal.Thimphu: Kunsang Topgay, 1979. HiddenTreasures and Secret Lives:a Study of Pemalingpa.1450- 1521 and the Sixth Dalai Lama1683-1706 . Shimla : Indian In-stitute of Advanced Study; Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass,1988. The Raven Crown: the Origins of Buddhist Monarchy in Bhutan. London: SerindiaPublications,1994. jigs- med-gling-pa's “Discourse on India" of 1789:a Critical Edition and Annotated Translation of the Lho- phyogs rgya- gar- gyi gtam brtag- pa brgyad- kyi me- long·Tokyo: The International institute for Buddhist Studies of ICABS,1995.

42The Navel of the Demoness:Tibetan Buddhism and Civil Religion in Highland Nepa1.New York:Oxford UniversityPress, 2007. Sacred Landscape and Pilgrimage in Tibet:In Search of the Lost Kingdom of Bon . Photographs by Thomas LKelly, Text by Liesha vielek Jinpa and Charles Ramble with V. Carroll uunham, New York: Abbeville Press, 2005. The Lamas ofLubra:Tibetan Bonpo householder priests in Western Nepal.Boston Spa, United Kingdom: British Library Document SupplyCentre.1984

43Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya.Zurich:Ethnological Museum of the University of Zurich, 20U.

44Kadampa Sites of Phempo:A Guide to Some Early Buddhist Monasteries in Central Tibet. Kathmandu,2004.

45】代表作有Tibet and the British Raj: the Frontier Cadre, l9ol-1947.Richmond,Surrey:Curzon,1997. The History ofTibet. London :New York: Routledge Curzon,2003.

46】代表作有:Dragon in the Snowland : A History of Modern Tibet since I947.New York:Penguin Compass, 2000.

47Studies in Indian and Tibetan Madhyamaka thought .Wien: Arbeitskreis fur Tibetische and Buddhistische Studien,Universitgt Wien,2000. The life of Bu ston Rin po the:with the Tibetan text of the Bu ston rNam Char.Roma: InstitutoItaliano,1966.

48The Six Perfections:an Abridged Version of E. Lamottes French Translation of Na ga rjunasMahaprdjrRdpdramitd.fdstra,chapters 16-30,Tring, UK: Institute of Buddhist Studies,2002. Tibetan Amuletwith an introduc-tory preface by Per &varne. Bangkok: White Orchid Fress,1983.

49Mapping the Path:vrapadas in Mahayana Literature. Tokyo: International institute for Buddhism Studies of the In-ternational College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies, 2007. Location list to the Texts in the microfiche Edition of the Sheldkar(London)manuscript bKav vgyur,The British Library (London)1996. The Dodhisattvapitaka:Its Doctrines, Practicesand their Position in Mahayana Literature .Tring:The Institute of Buddhist Studies, 1995.

50Shel Mar Chos' ByungHistory of theWhite Crystal'Religion and Politics of Southern La atod.Wien 1996.

51Feast of Miracles the Life and Tradition of Bodong Chole Namgyal ( 1375- 1451)·Porong rema Choding Edition,1997.

 

附录:“牛津大学西藏及喜马拉推研究项士研究生培养方案”

M . PHIL IN TIBETAN AND HIMALAYAN STUDIES :COURSE DETAILS

Course organiser: Dr Charles Ramble

YEAR 1

Term 1  The emphasis in the early stages of the course will be on the acquisition of languagewith five hours of elementary Tibetan per week .The teaching will be based primarily on Nicolas Tournadre and Sangda Dorje's Manual of Standard Tibetan(IthacaSnow Lion Publications,2003).It is expected thatwithin the first two weeksstudents will have grasped the essential fea-lures of Tibetan phonologyand learned the alphabet and the principles of syllable structure. There maining eight weeks of term will cover lessons 1 to 10 of the Manual Homework will consist of completing the grammar exercises that follow each lesson. There will also be a brief vocabulary test each week .Students will also be expected to read a number of English-language works by way of general background to the regionand to attend a series of weekly lectures entitledIntroduction to Tibetan History and Civilisation". They will also be encouraged to attend a series of introductory lectures on Buddhismbut in some years this series may be offered in terms other than Michaelmas .Throughout the six terms, attendance at the weekly presentations of work in progress by doctoral students of Tibetan Studiesand lectures given by visiting scholars, will be strongly recommended.

Term 2  Hilary term will begin with a one-hour collection (minor examination)to ensure that the lessons of the first term have been retained· Collections will be held at the beginning of every term hereafter. After the second weekone hour per week will be dedicated to literary Tibetan. The text used will be Kesang Gyurme's Clear Mirror(Full Tibetan title:Bod kyi brda sprod rig pa' i khrid rgyun rab gsal me long: classes will use excerpts from an unpublished English translation)

The aim ,by the end of the term, will be to complete and revise lessons 115 of the Manual. and to read a number of short pieces from different sources in modern and/or classical Tibetan.

In addition to language classes, students will be expected to attend a weekly lecture entitled "Society and the State in Tibet and the Himalaya".

The qualifying examinationto be taken at the end of this termwill have three components:1)A three-hour grammar paper based on lessons 115 of the Manual;2) A three-hour paper on set textsconsisting of five of the, short pieces read during the course of the term;3) an oral examination to test knowledge of spoken Tibetan.

Term 3   During Trinity termwork on the Manual will continue up to lesson 20·Extracts from grange of texts will be read and knowledge of grammar further developed .Students will also take two series of weekly tutorials: one on Buddhism, and one on aspects of Tibetan history and civilization.(Civilization" will cover various themes in historyreligious politics and anthropology.) Each tutorial will involve reading prescribed secondary works and preparing an essay or a presentation. The title of the 20, 000-word dissertation will be submitted in this termand discussions held with the supervisor concerning the content and structure of this work.

Students will be encouraged to use the long summer vacation to visit Tibetan-speaking communities (either in Tibet or in South Asia)to develop their language skills and begin work on their dissertations. Limited funding for such trips is available from certain sources·

YEAR 2

Term 1  There will be a one-hour collection based on lessons 1-20 of the Manual. Chapters 21-25will be covered during the course of the termand there will be further sessions on literary Tibetan grammar from the"Clear Mirror". One of the two set texts will be read over the course of eight one-hour sessions: a chapter from the novel gtsug g·yu, by dpal vbyor(Lhasa1986).There will beeight tutorials on the Tibetan literary heritage, and a further eight on Tibetan Buddhism.

Term 2  Chapters 26-30 of the Manual will be covered, and sections of the Clear Mirror studied.(Although the Manual contains 91 lessons, the final examinations will be based only on lessons 1-30.)The second set textan excerpt from a work in Classical Tibetan(such as a hagiography or a history) will be read in eight sessions.

Term 3  Dissertations are to be submitted by the end of the second week. Revision sessions for chapters 1-30 of the Manual will be held , and the set texts and essay topics reviewed.

 Excerpts from a variety of texts will be read as practice for translating unseens .More time will be devoted in this term to developing conversational skills.

 

【作者简介」苏发祥,藏族,博士,中央民族大学民族学与社会学学院教授。

原刊《中国藏学》2008年第3

                                                      

                                                                                (整理:冯永明)

                                          

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